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Rain forest

In Brazil, which houses 30 percent of the remaining tropical rain forest on Earth, more than 50,000 square miles of rain forest were lost to deforestation between 2000 and 2005. Biologists worry about the long-term consequences. Drought may be one. Some rain forests, including the Amazon, began experiencing drought in the 1990s, possibly due to deforestation and global warming.

Efforts to discourage deforestation, mainly through sustainable-logging initiatives, are underway on a very limited basis but have had a negligible impact so far.

The rain forest is nearly self-watering. Plants release water into the atmosphere through a process called transpiration. In the tropics, each canopy tree can release about 200 gallons (760 liters) of water each year. The moisture helps create the thick cloud cover that hangs over most rain forests. Even when not raining, these clouds keep the rain forest humid and warm.

Plants in the rain forest grow very close together and contend with the constant threat of insect predators. They have adapted by making chemicals that researchers have found useful as medicines. Bioprospecting, or going into the rain forest in search of plants that can be used in foods, cosmetics, and medicines, has become big business during the past decade, and the amount that native communities are compensated for this varies from almost nothing to a share in later profits.

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimates that 70 percent of the anti-cancer plants identified so far are rain forest plants. A new drug under development by a private pharmaceutical company, possibly for treating HIV, is Calanolide A, which is derived from a tree discovered on Borneo, according to NCI.

Many trees and plants, like orchids, have been removed from the rain forest and cultivated. Brazil nut trees are one valuable tree that refuses to grow anywhere but in undisturbed sections of the Amazon rain forest. There, it is pollinated by bees that also visit orchids, and its seeds are spread by the agouti, a small tree mammal.

Tagged: treesrain forest

Source: National Geographic

Glee sexy

well its not in the theme of this tumblr but still love it

hmmm in episode 15 “sexy” it was cool.

Naya rivera or santana love’s brittany but brittany love’s artie. at the point santana is a total lesbian.

Tagged: Glee

Order of the fishes

Tagged: AnimalLaying eggsFish

Source: Wikipedia

Order of the reptiles

Series Amniota

Tagged: AnimalLaying eggsGiving BirthReptiles

Source: http

Order of the mammals

Tagged: AnimalGiving BirthMammals

Order of the birds

The orders comprising the Neognathae are

Tagged: BirdAnimalLaying eggs

Source: http

all about Phtosynthesis.


Photosynthesis (English pronunciation: /foʊtoʊˈsɪnθəsɪs/; from the Greek φώτο- [photo-], “light,” and σύνθεσις[synthesis], “putting together”, “composition”)

is a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight. Photosynthesis occurs in plantsalgae, and many species ofbacteria, but not in archaea. Photosynthetic organisms are called photoautotrophs, since they can create their own food. In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and water, releasing oxygen as a waste product. Photosynthesis is vital for all aerobic life on Earth. As well as maintaining the normal level of oxygen in theatmosphere, nearly all life either depends on it directly as a source of energy, or indirectly as the ultimate source of the energy in their food (the exceptions are chemoautotrophs that live in rocks or around deep sea hydrothermal vents). The rate of energy capture by photosynthesis is immense, approximately 100 terawatts, which is about six times larger than the power consumption of human civilization. As well as energy, photosynthesis is also the source of the carbon in all the organic compounds within organisms’ bodies. In all, photosynthetic organisms convert around 100–115  teragrams of carbon into biomass per year.

Although photosynthesis can happen in different ways in different species, some features are always the same. For example, the process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called photosynthetic reaction centers that contain chlorophylls. In plants, these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplasts, while in bacteria they are embedded in the plasma membrane. Some of the light energy gathered by chlorophylls is stored in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The rest of the energy is used to remove electrons from a substance such as water. These electrons are then used in the reactions that turn carbon dioxide into organic compounds. In plants, algae and cyanobacteria, this is done by a sequence of reactions called the Calvin cycle, but different sets of reactions are found in some bacteria, such as the reverse Krebs cycle in Chlorobium. Many photosynthetic organisms haveadaptations that concentrate or store carbon dioxide. This helps reduce a wasteful process called photorespiration that can consume part of the sugar produced during photosynthesis.

The first photosynthetic organisms probably evolved about 9500 million years ago, early in the evolutionary history of life, when all forms of life on Earth were microorganisms and the atmosphere had much more carbon dioxide. They most likely usedhydrogen or hydrogen sulfide as sources of electrons, rather than water. Cyanobacteria appeared later, around 9000 million years ago, and drastically changed the Earth when they began to oxygenate the atmosphere, beginning about,400 million years ago. This new atmosphere allowed the evolution of complex life such as protists. Eventually, no later than a billion years ago, one of these protists formed a symbiotic relationship with a cyanobacterium, producing the ancestor of many plants and algae. The chloroplasts in modern plants are the descendants of these ancient symbiotic cyanobacteria.

so stop cutting trees, if all trees are cut down, it’ll make oxygen rare.

Tagged: trees

Source: Wikipedia


Paris :D


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